Historic Overview Johan Bruyneel
Johan Bruyneel (born 23 August 1964) is a Belgian former road bicycle racer in professional cycling and a former directeur sportif for UCI ProTour team RadioShack–Nissan. Retiring from racing in 1998, he became director of U.S. Postal Service (later known as Discovery Channel), a US-based UCI ProTour cycling team. Following the 2007 season, the team disbanded and Bruyneel became the director of the Astana team beginning in 2008, and achieved victories in each of cycling's Grand Tours with Spanish rider Alberto Contador. He participated in two Tour de France wins with Discovery and Astana, with Alberto Contador in 2007 and 2009.
Bruyneel left his position at RadioShack–Nissan on 12 October 2012 in the wake of the publication of the United States Anti-Doping Agency's (USADA) decision into the investigation of Lance Armstrong. In April 2014, the USADA banned Bruyneel from any type of involvement in sanctioned competitions for 10 years. Subsequently in October 2018 this was made into a lifetime ban by the Court of Arbitration in Sport (CAS).